russian battlecruiser ww2

Several other attempts were made using explosive charges to create shock waves that would pivot her stern into deeper water in combination with tugs attempting to pull her around, but these were counterproductive in that several holes were blown in her sides which flooded several compartments and grounded her that much more firmly. The ship was intended to be commanded by a rear admiral, with its executive officer, political officer and the heads of the gunnery and engineering divisions as captains 1st rank. She was the most-described and filmed ship of the Country of the Soviets. The Stalingrad's bow form was radically altered with a much more raked stem, its sheer and flare were greatly increased and the ship gained almost 10 m (32 ft 10 in) in length, possibly in response to the Chapayev's problems. "[1] Estimated characteristics were a displacement between 20,000–22,000 tonnes (20,000–22,000 long tons), nine main guns between 210–230 mm (8.3–9.1 in), a secondary battery of a dozen 130-millimeter (5.1 in) dual-purpose guns and thirty-two 37 mm AA guns. 2 and 3. The remainder of the armor was intended to resist 6-inch (152 mm) high explosive shells and 500-kilogram (1,100 lb) HE bombs. "[6] The admirals also did not like the reduction in the secondary armament made to accommodate the larger machinery and extra boilers needed to reach the speed desired by Stalin, but he reminded them that most aircraft would attack the battlecruiser at heights below 1,500 m (4,900 ft) and the ceiling of the 130 mm was far in excess of that. A fourth ship was apparently ordered from Yard 402, but was never laid down. A Russian crew found its way to the United Kingdom at the beginning of 1944 and commissioned the battleship officially as the Arkhangelsk on May 30, 1944. It had a range of 80 km (50 mi) against aerial targets and 20 km (12 mi) against surface targets. [22], The first ship was begun in November 1951 and the other two followed in 1952; a fourth was apparently ordered from the Severodvinsk shipyard, but was cancelled before being laid down. Article by War History Online. Twenty years later the Soviet Navy issued a requirement for a ship capable of dealing with enemy cruisers, but the design began to grow as it was modified to allow for combat with German pocket battleships on even terms, and later modified to gain parity with the Scharnhorst-class battleships. [21], These ships were canceled on 18 April 1953, after Stalin's death on 5 March, by the Ministry of Transport and Heavy Machinery,[21] and the hulls of Moskva and the third ship were scrapped on the slipways later that year. "You cannot blindly copy the Americans and English, they face different conditions, their ships travel far over the ocean, out of touch with their bases. The unnamed third ship was laid down at Yard 402, at Molotovsk around October 1952, Soviet sources refer to her proposed names as Kronshtadt or Arkhangelsk. Among modern warships, they are second in size only to large aircraft carriers, and of similar size to a World War I era battleship. In 1992 it was renamed Admiral Ushakov. The four Borodino-class battlecruisers (also referred to as Izmail class) of the Imperial Russian Navy were all laid down in December 1912[note 2] at Saint Petersburg for service with the Baltic Fleet. When they said no, he then asked if any twin 380-millimeter (15 in) turrets were available instead. The goal of this site is two fold. The hull was launched in 1954 after it was modified to suit its new role. Design work had just started when the German invasion of the Soviet Union opened and the design was put on hold. The guns in this mount could depress to −13° and elevate to 85° at a rate of 25° a second. This type, classed as a "heavy nuclear-powered missile cruiser" by the Soviets, eventually emerged as the largest non-aircraft carrying surface warship built since the end of the Second World War, and was termed in the West as a battlecruiser.[6]. [20], Stalingrad's formal keel-laying was on 31 December 1951 and it was hoped that she could be launched on 6 November 1953, the eve of the 36th anniversary of the October Revolution. [3], A bigger problem was the resistance of the Shipbuilding Commissariat which said it would be impossible to lay down any ships of new design until about 1950 and that only incremental changes could be made to the designs currently in production. Moskva was planned to be 11.5% finished, but was only 7.5% done. Traverse speed was 20° per second. 50 mm (2.0 in) of armor covered the hull side above the belt as protection from splinters. They were the first large Soviet-built ships with a flush deck. The Navy saw no reason why new ships, reflecting wartime experience, could not be laid down beginning in 1948. Embodying all the strengths and weaknesses of Fisher’s battlecruiser concept, Lion was every inch a thoroughbred. At the time, the Soviets did not envisage that arming surface ships with anti-ship missiles was required, as then current doctrine had it that submarines were the main platform for attacking enemy shipping. These ships had a complex and prolonged design process which was hampered by constantly changing requirements and the Great Purge in 1937. [3], This was reaffirmed by a decree of the Council of Ministers on 28 January 1947. In the event, none of the four ships of the class received a completely identical armament fit. It was a smaller and less-expensive counterpart to the Kronshtadt -class battlecruisers of 1939. Meanwhile in Russia, Moscow is still trying to squeeze life out of its Kirov-class battlecruisers. [4], The Navy revived its requirement for a "cruiser-killer" during the war, but the design process was quite lengthy as questions as to its armament, speed and size were debated. It was to be armored to withstand 203 mm shells with a speed not less than 36 knots (67 km/h; 41 mph), a range of 10,000 nautical miles (19,000 km; 12,000 mi) at 20 knots (37 km/h; 23 mph) and able to carry four seaplanes launched by two catapults. Reviews by the Navy and Shipbuilding Ministries in February 1951 led to some significant changes to the design in April. [44][45], Russian naval ship classes of World War I, No name was officially assigned to the third hull, with Soviet sources referring to the ship either as, The SS-N-19 missile is intended to be replaced by a mix of, "Still making waves: Soviet-era Kirov class battlecruisers serve as a reminder to America of Russian naval prowess", "Kirov (Orlan) Class (Type 1144.1/1144.2) (CGN)", "Kirov Class Battle Cruiser: The World's Largest Surface Combatant", "Russia continues upgrading its Kirov-class nuclear-powered cruisers", "Only one nuclear cruiser to be modernized", "Ремонт и модернизация тяжелого атомного ракетного крейсера "Адмирал Нахимов" идет в соответствии с графиком", "Крейсерова соната: атомный флот отправят в утиль", "Surface Forces: Killing The Kirovs To Save The Fleet", 3M22 Zircon Hypersonic Missile in Development Testing for Russian Navy Kirov-class Cruiser. This compromise was approved on 27 November 1945 and detailed design work began in 1946 for designs equipped with both the 220 mm and 305 mm guns. The Worst Nightmare of the US Navy, Huge Russian Navy Kirov-Class Battlecruisers. [10], Rather than use the Tsarist-era 305-millimeter (12.0 in) MK-3-12 gun as originally planned, or use the 305-mm/54 guns ordered for the Kronstadts, it was decided in 1947 to adopt a new and more powerful 61-caliber gun of the same size that was to use three newly designed triple SM-6 turrets. They were intended to fend off enemy attacks and protect the carriers when bad weather prevented flying. Admiral Lazarev (Russian: Адмирал Лазарев) is the second Kirov-class battlecruiser.Until 1992 she was named Frunze (Russian: Фрунзе) after a Project 68 cruiser (named after Bolshevik leader Mikhail Frunze); at that time she was renamed after Russian admiral Mikhail Petrovich Lazarev.The ship is currently laid up and in reserve status The incomplete hulls of both ships were ordered scrapped in 1947. [1], The project was revived in 1943 with a new requirement issued on 15 September. Subsequent ideas included converting some of the hulls for cargo or passenger use, which again failed. The Ganguts were the first class of Russian dreadnoughts. This was based on defensive operations along the periphery of the Soviet Union against Anglo-American carrier groups while submarines would attack their lines of communication. The Stalingrads also had Neptun and Nord navigational radars. The forward end of the armored citadel was closed off by a 140-millimeter (5.5 in) thick transverse bulkhead on the forward end and 125 mm (4.9 in) aft. To resolve the dispute a special commission was appointed, led by Lavrentiy Beria, which mostly sided with the Shipbuilding Commissariat in that most ships of the program would be improved versions of current designs. [11], The forward conning tower had a forward face of 250 mm (9.8 in) that thinned down to 225 mm on the aft section with a 100-millimeter (3.9 in) roof. Its rate of fire was 75 rounds per minute and 800 rounds were carried for each gun. Their rate of fire was 15 rounds per minute and 200 rounds were stowed for each gun. But deliveries of steel, armor, machinery and other equipment were delayed or arrived out of sequence, despite extraordinary efforts by the Ministry of Shipbuilding, and slowed construction enough so that she fell about six months behind schedule and the same was more or less true for the other ships. These preparations were very time-consuming and it wasn't until mid-July 1956 that it could be pulled off the rocks into Sevastopol harbor where she was given more permanent repairs. [9] The Navy made a serious proposal in 1925 to convert Izmail, the ship closest to completion, to an aircraft carrier, but this plan was later cancelled as a result of political maneuvering on the part of the Red Army. Below the main deck they were protected by only 195–155 mm (7.7–6.1 in) of armor. The 130 mm turrets were only protected by 25 mm (0.98 in) of armor as splinter protection. These were backed up by a single KDP-8-10 optical director mount fitted with 8-meter (26 ft) and 10-meter (33 ft) rangefinders. They were designed in response to the battleships being built by Germany. By the time the ship was launched in December 1977, she had been reclassified as a "heavy nuclear-powered guided missile cruiser" (Russian: тяжёлый атомный ракетный крейсер; tyazholyy atomnyy raketnyy kreyser), with its primary armament being 20 SS-N-19 Shipwreck (P-700 Granit) anti-ship missiles. [32][33], The first hull was laid down at the Baltiysky Zavod in Leningrad in March 1974 under the name Kirov. Apparently this was believed to improve their protective qualities, although there is no indication of how it did this. The United States Navy is the biggest and most powerful in the world. He also ordered a reduction in the light anti-aircraft guns believing that its escorts would defend it. The citadel armor was intended to provide an immunity zone against 8 in (200 mm) armor-piercing shells at ranges between 13,000–15,000 yards (12,000–14,000 m) and 34,000 yards (31,000 m). It was a smaller and less-expensive counterpart to the Kronshtadt -class battlecruisers of 1939. The Kronshtadt-class battlecruisers, with the Soviet designation as Project 69 heavy cruisers, were ordered for the Soviet Navy in the late 1930s. The hull of the most advanced ship was used as a target and the other two were scrapped on their slipways. [8], The ships of the Stalingrad class were 260 meters (853 ft 0 in) long at the waterline, and 273.6 meters (897 ft 8 in) long overall. Zumwalt ’s opponent, the battlecruiser Kirov, is a relic from another era. [36][37] Their appearance was a major factor in the US Navy reactivating its four Iowa-class battleships in the early 1980s. So you would think there is. … Thus, after his death in 1953, little time was wasted in cancelling the three ships that had been laid down. [33][34] Commissioned into the Northern Fleet, Kirov was the largest surface warship, excluding aircraft carriers and amphibious assault vessels, built since the end of the Second World War. These ranged in length from 40–169 mm (1.6–6.7 in) and totally invalidated all calculations about the amount of force required to free her. [15] The gun fired 1.41-kilogram (3.1 lb) shells at a muzzle velocity of 1,080 m/s (3,500 ft/s) to a maximum horizontal range of 12,000 m (13,000 yd). WWII: Anniversary of the Sinking of the Battleship Scharnhorst. This list may not reflect recent changes . It was later determined that they could be used, so the agreement was finalized in November 1940 with the deliveries scheduled from October 1941 to 28 March 1943. [10], The armor scheme of the battlecruisers was quite complex with armor plates of no less than 25 different thicknesses used. It was intended to fulfill the following roles: To accomplish these missions, the Navy desired a ship of 20,000 tonnes (20,000 long tons) or smaller, armed with eight 203 mm and twelve 100-millimeter (3.9 in) guns, a dozen 37-millimeter (1.5 in) anti-aircraft (AA) guns and one triple 533-millimeter (21.0 in) torpedo mount. The Ministry ordered in June that Stalingrad's hull, which was about 70% ready for launching, be used for weapons tests. Waterline or about 156 m ( 13–15 ft ) amidships, which again failed by. Of these ships and made many of the World Velikiy is planned to be 11.5 %,. Of armor covered the hull was launched in 1954 after it was modified to suit its new role presumably thinner... For approval on 4 June 1951, but a program of seven large cruisers was approved the... The event, none of the Battleship Scharnhorst engineers, V.P 's waterline or about 156 m ( 512 )... Components had to be ordered from abroad has the biggest warship of the mainmast as well Yakor! 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